Typhoid worldwide. Image from Wikipedia
The symptoms of Salmonella food poisoning appear after a few hours of ingestion of contaminated food (any type of food specially undercooked eggs, meat, chicken, milk and other dairy products and unclean vegetables and fruits.)
We have to remember that this is different from Typhoid fever. While Salmonella food poisoning is caused by the organism : Salmonella Typhimurium, Typhoid fever is caused by Salmonella Typhi.
They also differ in the symptoms and incubatory period of the organisms.
The clinical picture (symptoms) of Salmonella food poisoning are :
- Rash and headache in some cases.
The infection is treated by antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin (3rd generation qiunolones) or chloramphenicol.
Dehydration may develope due to vomiting and diarrhea, in this case fliud replacement is indicated.
Typhoid fever symptoms:
The incubatory period for Salmonella Typhi is from one to two weeks. The course of the disease passes by 4 stages in 4 weeks:
- The 1st week:
- Increasing fever (a step-ladder form) untill 40℃ (104 °F). This stage of the disease is characterised by what is called (relative bradycardia or Sphygmo-thermal dissociation). This means that the pulse rate remains low inspite of the high temperature. In other fevers, the pulse should increase by 10 with every 1 ℃ elevation of temperature.
- Severe headache.
- Sore throat and bleeding nose sometimes.
- Bronchitis and lung rhonchi can be heard.
- Excess sweating in sudoral type of typhoid fever.
- Rose spot rash n some cases.
- The 2nd week:
Symptoms get worse and the heart rate is accelerated (fever continues) spleen is more enlarged and diarrhea developes (or constipation sometimes).
Deliruims and sometimes nervousness are frequent.
- The 3rd week:
Recovery with treatment. The following complications may occur in untreated cases:
- Intestinal perforation and haemorrhage.
- Encephalitis and meningitis.
- Loss of consciousness and twithces. (Typhoid State) which is characterized by delirium).
- Endocarditis and osteitis.
- The 4th week:
Complete cure. Relapses may occur.
-Positive Widal test in the 2nd week with antiO and antiH antibodies.
-Leucopenia with relative lymphocytosis.
-Stool culture in the 2n week.
Tratment of typhoid fever:
- Complete rest and easily digested food intake.
- Antibiotics as Ciprofloxacin, Ampicillin, Chloramphenicol and Amoxicillin.
- Antipyretics, analgesics.
- Treatment of complications.
In addition to the mentioned symptoms of Salmonella, a reactive reaction in the joints may develope in some cases (Reiter's syndrome). It's also called reactive arthritis with joins pain and inflammation.